童年对人生的影响

人一部分是从基因里面已经被注定的

人一部分是后天影响形成的

童年作为人生最初的雕刻时期,对人生影响巨大

—-

人脑当然不是一生下就定型了,而是终其一生不断成长,而成长最快的时期是童年。我们出生时神经细胞比成人后还多,然而经过裁剪使得脑部传递的讯息更清晰精确。这是个不断快进的过程,新的联结可在数小时或数日内完成。可以说经验(尤其是童年经验)是脑部的雕刻师。
  
  关于经验对脑部成长的影响,神经科学家俊斯顿与大卫·胡柏以猫和猴子为实验对象,这两种动物的神经腱的发展,以出生几个月为关键期。如果在这段时期将一眼蒙住,这只眼的神经腱就会减少,而张开的那只眼睛则会增加。这段时期过去后将眼罩拿掉,蒙住的那只眼睛虽然没什么问题,在功能上等于是瞎了,因为该眼通往皮质的路径太少,无法对眼睛接收的讯息做解读。
  
  人类视觉功能的关键成熟期则是七岁以前,这段时间小孩的眼睛即使只被蒙住几个星期,也会造成视力的损伤。如果蒙住的时间长达数月,事后即使再打开,观看细物的视力也会受损。

———–婴儿和听觉

A baby spends the first year of life learning to listen.A newborn child come s equipped with a finely-tuned pair of ears,
but he doesn’t yet know how to use them.A buzz of meaningless noise surrounds hime.No one sound means more than any other.
Unlike his ears,the hearing center of his brains is still immature.As the baby grows,two things happen.
First,he becomes better at picking out certain sounds.Second,be begings to remember them.

This development is easy to see.If you make a loud sound near a day-old baby’s head,you will not see any reaction.
Only a check on his pulse or breathing rate will show a change.But just two weeks later,the same noise will make hime jerk.
He may even turn his head toward you,now the human voice means something to him.If he hears another baby crying,he may cry.
By his fourth to sixth week,sounds like doorbell or the clothing of a door no longer surprise hime.

What is actually happening is that he is tarting to learn to listen.He can select certain sounds and memorize them.
When he hears that sound again,he can match it with the one he has heard before.These skills are basic to all learning.

At the same time thers early hearing and language skills get under way,the child beging to practice making sounds.
His first sounds are the discomfort sounds.These sounds are heard when he is not quiet or sleeping.
These sounds mean nothing to him yet.To his mother they say he is wet,uncomfortable,or hungry.

Within the baby’s first month,another sound appears:the comfort sounds.These are different from discomfort sounds.
As the child grows,his comfort sounds will mort of the vowels and consonants and rhythms which he will later use.
Thers sounds will come together to form the first word.This special event wil be long remembered by ghe proud parents.

发表评论

您的电子邮箱地址不会被公开。


*